As for industry, it was above all thanks to its spectacular development (it is among the top ten industrial countries in the world) that Brazil experienced the highest growth rate of the national product in Latin America, with values that have long remained at 10 % per year. The basic industry has been created since the 1960s thanks to powerful government aid, to which we owe, for example, the large steel center of Volta Redonda, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, which has been joined by numerous other complexes, such as that of Usiminas, in Minas Gerais, one of the largest in Latin America. Less relevant, but already well diversified, is the metallurgical sector as a whole, with foundries of lead, zinc, tin, copper and above all aluminum. The mechanical industry has also enormously expanded its activity and of particular importance is the strengthening of the automotive industry, concentrated around São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, São Bernardo do Campo, Rio de Janeiro, Pôrto Alegre: Brazil is now also in this sector at the top of the world rankings, also thanks to the local presence of the largest multinationals in the sector (Fiat, Ford, General Motors, Renault, etc.). There are also good productions both of agricultural machinery, railway material, etc., and of various equipment and household appliances, especially radios and televisions. In the Southeast important high-tech industrial centers have sprung up with a moderate success in the aerospace industry (a dedicated center is active in São Bernardo do Campo) and armaments; in addition, an attempt was made to encourage the development of the IT branch. Also noteworthy is the electrical and electronic hub located in Manaus, where there is a district that collects approx. 400 companies. The traditional textile industry retains all its importance, concentrated in São Paulo and with pre-eminence for the cotton mill but with good development also for artificial textile fibers. In addition to textiles, all the activities related to the transformation of local agricultural and livestock products are naturally very significant, thus including impressive sugar refineries, tobacco factories, coffee processing plants, canneries, cocoa factories, etc. The petrochemical industry is in great expansion, which has a dozen refineries, mostly located in port centers, and even more the chemical one, traditionally placed at the service of agriculture (fertilizers), but also well represented in the pharmaceutical sector. plastics, sulfuric acid production, caustic soda etc. Equally important are the rubber industry, favored by the local raw material, that of cement and that of paper. § Considered for centuries an almost exclusively agricultural country, according to ezinereligion, Brazil is actually a mining power: in particular for iron it is already the second largest producer in the world and the Amazonian deposits of Serra dos Carajás, which are alongside those of the most ancient exploitation of Minas Gerais, are considered the largest in the world, with a forecast of exploitation of 400 years. For many other minerals Brazil is at the top of the world rankings, for example for rock crystal, of which Brazil is particularly rich, the chromite, zirconium; the deposits of manganese, magnesite, cassiterite, bauxite, nickel, uranium, titanium, asbestos, phosphates, tungsten are also very conspicuous, etc., which are added to the minerals of traditional extraction such as gold coming in particular from Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Pará, from which a good quantity of diamonds and precious stones (marine waters, amethysts, topazes) are also obtained. However, the extractive industries are largely controlled by foreign companies. Energy sources, on the other hand, are not abundant: coal is rather scarce and so is oil which, given the growing demands of industries, must be imported in large quantities; deposits are present both on land (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Paraná, Sergipe) and on the continental shelf (in particular the Rio de Janeiro estuary and the Campos basin). On the other hand, the hydroelectric potential is enormous; almost all of the The electricity produced is of water origin and the country has colossal power plants, such as that of Urubupungá, on the Paraná river; the Itaipú complex was also built on the Paraná, in collaboration with Paraguay, while the Tucuruí complex was built on the Tocantins river. No less promising is the nuclear energy sector; following the discovery of important uranium deposits, in 1977 Brazil started the construction of two nuclear power plants concentrated in the Angra dos Reis area: the first came into operation in 1983. nuclear energy; following the discovery of important uranium deposits, in 1977 Brazil started the construction of two nuclear power plants concentrated in the Angra dos Reis area: the first came into operation in 1983. nuclear energy; following the discovery of important uranium deposits, in 1977 Brazil started the construction of two nuclear power plants concentrated in the Angra dos Reis area: the first came into operation in 1983.