TERRITORY: ENVIRONMENT. FLORA
From the point of view of climate and environmental conditions, the Brazilian territory can be divided into some large regions: the Norte, or Amazonia; the Nordeste, corresponding to the great eastern projection of the subcontinent; the Lesteor Sudeste, which includes all the central Atlantic part; the Center-West, relating to the inland expanses; finally the Sul, that is the southernmost area of the country. The Amazon region, with its rainy equatorial climate, is dominated by the rainforest, The most extensive and vigorous plant manifestation of Earth, rich in species that develop in various ways depending on the more or less moist soils: all ‘ igapó, amphibious zone occupied by mangroves, it happens the varzea, the flooded area, with not much training tall but intricate; in the lands sheltered from floods (terra-firme) there are the most powerful formations, with trees reaching up to 60 m in height. Among the industrial plants it is enough to remember the Hevea, so important in the economic development of Brazil. The rainforest goes, with long branches corresponding to the hydrographic network, even in the adjacent regions, where the accentuation of the two-season climate replaces the rainforest with savannah and xerophilous wood. In semi-arid environments one speaks in general of caatinga, that is a succession of shrubs, trees and grassy expanses, in which there is no lack of species with xerophilic characters, particularly marked in the drought Northeast; the region, however, presents quite varied aspects passing from the western part, where grassy spaces interspersed with palm trees alternate (palma babaçu) and expanses of shrubs, to the eastern one, dominated by thorny shrubs, cacti and other markedly xerophilous species: we then speak of sertão, a term used to define the areas behind the coastal strip, with little possibility of exploitation. In the East, given its rainy climate, there is a forest environment that in the most favored areas, on the high mountain slopes, gives rise to a typical forest (mata atlântica), exuberant and rich in species, including Caesalpinia echinata whose wood (Brazil) gave the name to the country; on the coastal strip there are fertile soils (massapé) which, in relation to the hot and humid climate, make it the most suitable region for plantation agriculture. Beyond the greenhouses, on the plateau, the caatinga returns, more or less rich, which grows on soils (terra roxa) very suitable for coffee. In the Center-West the caatinga prevails again, which begins already in Mato Grosso, where there are shrubs and tree-covered areas (campos cerrados), which are succeeded by increasingly large grassy areas (campos limpios). Dominant plants are different types of palm, including the vitiferae (burití, Mauritia vitifera) and the gumiferous one (mangabeira, Hancornia speciosa); in the southernmost area the mate tree (Ilex paraguariensis) grows spontaneously. In On, finally, we have subtropical formations; on the hills, where rainfall is still high, the associations of conifers (araucarias) form extensive and regular forests (mata do pinhal); the lower areas are covered by grasslands grasses (campinas), that prelude to the pampas Uruguayan.
TERRITORY: ENVIRONMENT. FAUNA
According to constructmaterials, the fauna of Brazil is extremely varied, also given the extension of the country, and practically coincides with the fauna of the northern part of South America. There are almost all the Platirrine Monkeys (ateles, cacajao, marmosets, tamarins,etc.), all the Maldentati (anteaters and armadillos), numerous bats including the vampire (Desmodus rotundus) and the fishing bat (Noctilio leporinus). The capybara, a large rodent, is very widespread, while the jaguar is present among the Felines, the puma and the yaguarondi. Do not miss the Weasel as taira and carnivores like the gray fox of the pampas of southern Brazil, the fox from the Amazon short ears and ‘ Orinoco, the crisocione and Bush dog, found in the fossil record before it can even live specimens were found. Finally, in the Amazon River there are numerous species of fish, in particular all those belonging to the Caracidae family (including the tiger fish or piranha), as well as the terrible barracudas. In the high waters there are also the inia, a large cetacean, and the Brazilian manatee, a species of sirenid typical of the Amazons, at risk of extinction. As for the other vertebrates, Brazil does not offer a great variety of animals. They are almost entirely absent the Amphibians except for the frogs arboreal, while among the Reptiles a prominent place the responsibility of the anaconda, the jacaré and all ‘ iguana from tubercles; and among the birds to parrots (including the hyacinth macaw, the largest in the world) and ai toucans.