In the early 20th century, neo-colonialist tendencies dominated, v. a. in the architecture of Victor Dubrugas (* 1868, † 1933) and Ricardo Severo (* 1869, † 1940). In the 1920s, the u. Modernism represented by Gregori Warchavchik (* 1896, † 1972)and Flávio de Carvalho (* 1899, † 1973) for the breakthrough of the international style. The outstanding representative of this generation is O. Niemeyer , whose designs for the capital Brasília (1957–60), among others. the cathedral (1960 and 1969), which had a lasting influence on Brazilian architecture and led to its own development. At the same time, L. Costa stood out who, inter alia. together with O. Niemeyer built the Ministry of Education in Rio de Janeiro (1937-43), Henrique Mindlin (* 1911, † 1971), Álvaro Vital Brasil (* 1909, † 1997), João Villanova Artigas (* 1915, † 1985), Sérgio Bernardes (* 1919, † 2002), AE Reidy and R. Levi . The work of João Filgueiras Lima (* 1932) and Paulo Mendes da Rocha (* 1928) representsan innovative further development in the second half of the 20th century. The most important landscape architect was Roberto Burle-Marx (* 1909, † 1994), who together with A. E. Reidy created the Museu de Arte Moderna in São Paulo (opened in 1958).
While late echoes of the academy tradition of the 19th century predominated at the beginning of the 20th century, the avant-garde movements of the 1920s also introduced a turning point in Brazilian sculpture, which, however, only found its own identity in the 1950s. As outstanding representatives of neo-concrete art, L. Clark , S. de Camargo and Hélio Oiticica (* 1937, † 1980) also devoted themselves to experimental art. Frans Krajcberg (* 1921), Mario Cravo Júnior (* 1923) and Cildo Meirelles (* 1948) increasingly include social issues. José Resende (* 1945) and are committed to minimalism Waltérico Caldas (* 1946). A break with the traditions of neoconcretism and concept art is bringing about a younger generation who include the viewer as a calculated component of the work of art with installations, including Tunga (* 1952), Daniel Senise (* 1955), Leda Catunda (* 1961)), Jac Leirner (* 1961), Ernesto Neto (* 1961) and Efrain Almeida (* 1964).
The first generation, shaped by European modernism, was led by Eliseu Visconti (* 1866, † 1944), who brought the principles of post-impressionism to Brazil after studying in Paris. With Belmiro de Almeida (* 1858, † 1935) and Carlos Oswald (* 1882, † 1971), a new movement developed, whose followers absorbed the influences of Art Nouveau and the applied arts and thus established the applied arts. The exhibition by Anita Malfatti (* 1889, † 1964) in São Paulo in 1917 initiated an independent development, which culminated in 1922 in the “Semana de Arte Moderna”. Your protagonists, in addition to A. Malfatti, Vítor Brecheret (* 1894, † 1955), E. Di Cavalcanti and Vicente do Rego Monteiro (* 1899, † 1970) formed an avant-garde that, with the return to its own Brazilian identity, brought about further movements, including »Pau Brasil« (1924) and »Antropofagia« (1928), headed by Tarsila do Amaral (* 1886, † 1973), Oswaldo Goeldi (* 1895, † 1961), C. Portinari and L. Segall . Bruno Lechowsky (* 1887, † 1941), Eugênio de Proença Sigaud (* 1899, † 1979), José Pancetti (* 1902, † 1958), Edson Motta (* 1910, † 1981) and Mílton Rodrigues Dacosta (* 1915, † 1988) subsequently placed the formal preoccupation with color and material at the center of their work. Important representatives of abstract painting were Alfredo Volpi (* 1896, † 1988) and Samson Flexor (* 1907, † 1971). Painting in the second half of the 20th century was in the context of international trends. Lothar Charoux (* 1912, † 1987), Iberê Camargo (* 1914, † 1994), Mira Schendel (* 1919, † 1988), Kazmer Fejer (* 1923, † 1989), Luiz Sacilotto (* 1924, † 2003), Waldemar Cordeiro (* 1925, † 1973) and Willys de Castro (* 1926, † 1988) led concrete painting. The tachism were required and are Wega Nery Gomes Pinto (* 1912, † 1992), Fukushima Tikashi (* 1920, † 2001), Manabu Mabe (* 1924, † 1997) and Wakabayashi Kazuo (* 1931). Wesley Duke Lee (* 1931), Nelson Leirner (* 1932),Anna Bella Geiger (* 1933) and Carlos Fajardo (* 1941) represent New Figuration and Pop Art. In the climate of political restoration, which in the mid-1980s brought about a comprehensive change in the government apparatus and educational institutions in Brazil, according to computerannals, the post-modern strategies of »Geração 80« emerged (including Mário Azevedo, * 1954; Angelo Venosa, * 1954; Monica Nador, born 1955; José Leonilson, born 1957; Beatriz Milhazes, * 1960; Nuno Ramos; * 1960).
A first significant approach of photography to the fine arts took place in the 1940s and 50s, v. a. in the course of the concrete and neo-concrete art movements (especially Geraldo de Barros, * 1923, † 1998; Thomaz Farkas, * 1924). The works of Carlos Fadon Vicente (* 1945), Miguel Rio Branco (* 1946), Mario Cravo Neto (* 1947), Luiz Carlos Felizardo (* 1949), Gal Oppido (* 1952) and Rosângela stand for independent, cross-border photography Renno (born 1962).
Rio de Janeiro
Only years after the first explorations of Brazil by the Portuguese (since 1500) did French Huguenots set up a settlement on an island in Guanabara Bay. To drive out the French, the Portuguese sent Estácio de Sá († 1567) to the area. On March 1st, 1565, he founded the forerunner settlement of today’s city, São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, on the flat sandy beach between Sugar Loaf Mountain and Morro Cara de Cão . which in 1567 was moved further inland to an offshoot of the Maciço da Tijuca, the Morro de São Januário (later Morro do Castelo). In 1585 the city had 4,000 residents and began to expand into the coastal plain. Rapid urban development began in the first half of the 18th century, promoted by gold mining in Minas Gerais. In 1763, instead of Bahia (now Salvador), Rio de Janeiro became the capital of colonial Brazil. From 1808–21 it was the seat of the Portuguese royal court that fled from Napoleon I. During this time over 24,000 mostly Portuguese immigrants settled in the city. In addition, Rio de Janeiro developed into the main hub for African slaves; the historic port facility from this time (Valongo-Kai) has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2017. After Brazil gained independence (1822), Rio de Janeiro became its capital (until 1960) and the seat of the imperial court and the republican government.