Independent from Portugal since 1822, Brazil has been a presidential federal republic since 1889, made up of 26 states, each governed by an elected governor and assembly, and by a Distrito Federal (Brasília), created in 1960; the new Constitution of 1988, replacing the one imposed by the military regime in 1969, maintains the presidential system, as confirmed by the 1993 referendum. Head of State and Government is the President of the Republic, elected by direct universal suffrage and holder of executive power. The holder of the legislative function is the National Congress, formed by the Chamber of Deputies, elected every 4 years by universal suffrage, and by the Senate, whose members are elected every 8 years and renewable, 1/3 and 2/3 every 4 years. There is also a Council of the Republic, summoned in cases of national emergency. The judicial system in use is based on continental European law; the country does not accept the emanations of the International Court. Justice is administered, to its highest degree, by the Federal Supreme Court. Also present are a high court of justice, a high labor court and a high electoral court. In individual states, the law is administered by the Courts of Appeal and minor courts. The death penalty, abolished for ordinary crimes, remains in force for crimes committed in wartime. The defense of the state is entrusted to the three traditional weapons, which are flanked by paramilitary bodies present in every state. Military service is compulsory and is carried out from the age of 21 (17 if the service is provided on a voluntary basis). Its duration varies from 9 to 12 months. Participation of women is allowed. The Brazilian school system enjoyed Portuguese and North American influence during the colonial period and the economic-political dependence following independence. With the Constitution of 1946, the free and compulsory nature of primary education was sanctioned, as well as the burden on companies in the various economic sectors to establish free primary schools for their workers and their children. Like all Latin American countries, Brazil too is however far from having guaranteed the spread of culture at all levels; illiteracy is still particularly widespread (10% in 2010), despite the efforts made and the successes achieved by Movement Brasileiro de Alfabetização (MOBRAL), which was responsible (since 1971) for a literacy campaign following which the illiteracy rate was reduced. According to a2zgov, the Brazilian school system provides for eight years of compulsory primary education (from 7 to 14 years of age) and three years of optional secondary education, with a scientific or humanistic focus. Higher education is given in various technical and humanistic institutes and the university, which lasts from 3 to 6 years, in the numerous centers administered by the state or managed by private individuals (mostly Catholic institutions). The most important universities are those of Salvador (1946), Rio de Janeiro (1920 and 1950), Brasília (1961), Ceará (1955), the Mackenzie University of São Paulo (1952), those of Minas Gerais (1927), of Paraná (1912) and the pontifical universities of Campinas (1956),
The history of cultured music in Brazil began only in the second half of the century. XVIII, when in the rich region of Minas Gerais, where cities and churches had been built by the Portuguese colonizers, the need for sacred music for religious festivals and celebrations was satisfied. The musicians, often mulattoes, were recruited from the local population and their music was closely linked to the tradition of contemporary European sacred music. JJE Lobo de Mesquita, MC Netto, FG de Rocha belong to the group of these early composers. In the same period the Jesuits founded a veritable conservatory in Santa Cruz and the various musical activities culminated in the work of his father JM Nunes Garcia (1767-1830), author of sacred music with influences from Haydn and Mozart. Also worthy of mention is F. Manoel da Silva (1795-1865), who founded the Conservatory of Rio de Janeiro and who wrote, in addition to much sacred music, the Brazilian national anthem. During the century. The interest in musical theater was also asserted in the nineteenth century. The most successful opera player was CA Gomes (1836-1896), whose works, also applauded at La Scala (O Guarany, 1870), they completely inserted themselves into the Italian tradition. In the second half of the century, composers of instrumental music also established themselves and the need arose for a “national” music, linked to folklore (the Brazilian popular tradition is characterized by a prevalent presence of African elements, also borrowed from Cuba, which are joined Spanish-Portuguese and, to a limited extent, Amerindian components). From these experiences, styles and typologies developed in a complete form that have characterized and distinguished Brazil in a strong way and that have merged into the broader definition of Brazilian popular music, of which the most famous examples are samba and bossa nova. L. Miguez (1850-1902), A. Levy (1864-1892), A. Nepomuceno (1864-1920), F. Braga they are the most significant figures before H. Villa-Lobos, in whose vast production the synthesis between the European and national musical tradition is most fully realized. Among the composers of the twentieth century we still remember OL Fernandez, F. Mignone, C. Guarnieri. Among the authors of popular music should be mentioned E. Nazareth (1863-1934), creator of Brazilian tango, Milton Nascimento (b.1942), Gilberto Gil (b.1942), who in 2003 was called by President Lula to the post Minister of Culture, Caetano Veloso (b.1942), AC Jobim (1927-1994), João Gilberto (b.1931). The more recent generations turn instead to the experiences of the avant-garde European, traceable in the scores of C. Santoro and O. Lacerda.