Sharp contrasts characterize the natural conditions in Peru

Geography of Peru

Peru is South America’s third largest country. Traditionally, the landscape is divided into three longitudinal topographic regions: the dry coastal plain in the west, the highlands with the Andes in the middle and tropical rainforest in the Amazon basin in the east. Although the coastal region accounts for only 12 per cent of the total […]

Literature of Peru

Literature of Peru

The first Peruvian author of importance was the chronicle writer El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1616). The colonial literature was largely a reflection of the motherland’s spiritual life. Juan de Espinosa Medrano (died in 1688) was a hot supporter of the Spanish Baroque poet Góngora, while the satirist Juan del Valle Caviedes shows himself […]

Architecture in Peru

Architecture in Peru

Incan architecture When the Spaniards invaded Peru, they encountered an Inca culture that also included an architecture of large and small cities, fortifications, roads and more. Much was built of sun-dried clay, while more significant buildings and facilities were characterized by highly developed stone work. The historic center of the ancient Inca capital Cuzco and […]

Music in Peru

Music in Peru

Folk music Bas-reliefs of processions and ceremonies testify that ritual dances at a high artistic level have played an important role in Peru’s ancient civilization. Archaeological finds also document a rich pre-Columbian music scene with conch horns, whistles, horns of various sizes, pan-whistles, bells and rattles of silver, drums and ocharines. In traditional quechua music, Native American flutes, quena, are still […]

Theater in Peru

Art and Theater in Peru

Art in Peru On the art of pre-Columbian times, see Chimú, moche, Tiahuanaco, nazca, and the Inca, as well as illustrations under Native Americans. In the colonial period visual art was almost exclusively related to the sacral. The pervasive changes brought about by the liberation wars of the early 19th century came to the fore […]